India’s Employment Scenario: Key Findings (2024 Report)

Short Notes or Revision Notes

GS-3 Mains 

Question : “Discuss the key findings of the 2024 report on India’s employment scenario as outlined by the International Labour Organisation (ILO) and the Institute of Human Development (IHD).

Source: International Labour Organisation (ILO) & Institute of Human Development (IHD)

Key Issues

  • High Youth Unemployment:
    • 83% of unemployed workforce is youth.
    • Share of educated unemployed youth doubled (35.2% in 2000 to 65.7% in 2022).
  • Deteriorated Labour Market Indicators (2000-2018):
    • Labour Force Participation Rate (LFPR)
    • Worker Population Ratio (WPR)
    • Unemployment Rate (UR)
  • Poor Employment Conditions:
    • Slow shift to non-farm jobs.
    • Women in informal work and unpaid family work.
    • 90% in informal work, regular work declining.
    • Limited social security coverage.
  • Skills Gap:
    • 75% youth lack email attachment skills.
    • 60% lack file copy-paste skills.
    • 90% lack spreadsheet formula skills.
  • Job Market Decline:
    • 2% MoM decline in Nov 2023.
    • 10% YoY decline overall.
    • Public Sector Undertakings (PSU) expected to bridge the gap.
  • Widening Gender Gap:
    • Lack of quality jobs for educated youth.
    • Preference for better jobs over low-paying ones.

Policy Recommendations

  • Job Creation:Promote policies to absorb new workforce entrants.
  • Improve Employment Quality:Better job security and benefits for workers.
  • Address Labor Market Inequalities:Gender, caste, regional disparities.
  • Skills Development:Enhance youth employability.
  • Bridge Knowledge Deficits:More research on labor market trends and youth challenges.

About ILO

  • Specialized UN agency promoting decent work.
  • Founded in 1919, headquartered in Geneva.
  • India is a founding member.
  • Aims for:
    • Rights at work.
    • Decent employment opportunities.
    • Enhanced social protection.
    • Dialogue on work-related issues.
  • Recognition:
    • Nobel Peace Prize (1969).
    • Flagship reports on wages, employment outlook, social protection, world of work.

Related Government Initiatives

  • Atmanirbhar Bharat Rojgar Yojana (ABRY):Incentivizes job creation and social security benefits.
  • Pradhan Mantri Rojgar Protsahan Yojana (PMRPY):Incentivizes new job creation by employers.
  • National Career Service (NCS):Provides career services like job matching, counseling, and skill development information.
  • MGNREGA:Provides guaranteed rural wage employment.
  • PM Garib Kalyan Rojgar Abhiyaan (PMGKRA):Boosts employment for migrant workers in rural areas.
  • Pradhan Mantri Mudra Yojana (PMMY):Provides collateral-free loans for micro/small businesses.
  • Garib Kalyan Rojgar Abhiyaan (GKRA):Generates employment and rural infrastructure.
  • PM GatiShakti:Focuses on infrastructure development for economic growth.


India’s employment scenario requires robust policies to address high youth unemployment, skill gaps, and gender disparity. While initiatives exist, more needs to be done to improve the situation.


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