Editorial 1 : Food for reform

GS-3 Mains

Short Notes or Revision Notes

Question ; Critically analyze the role of Farmer Producer Organisations (FPOs) in promoting inclusive growth in the agri-food sector of India


Editorial suggests preparations for the first 100 days of the third term of the NDA government in 2024.

Facts and Figures:

  • India’s projected population: 1.6 billion by 2047.
  • Last year’s temperature rise: 1.5°C above pre-industrial levels.
  • Current malnutrition rate: Stunting at 35%.
  • Proposal to save 25-30% of Rs 4 trillion subsidy on food and fertilisers.

Suggestions for Agri-Food Space

  1. Raising Total Factor Productivity
    • Need for food systems transformation.
    • India’s population projected to reach 1.6 billion by 2047.
    • Goal: Produce more with fewer resources.
    • Emphasis on agri-R&D, innovation, and extension.
    • Aim to raise total factor productivity.
  2. Investing in Climate-Resilient Agriculture
    • Threat of extreme weather events due to global warming.
    • Last year’s temperature exceeded 1.5°C above pre-industrial levels.
    • Climate events impacting agri-GDP growth.
    • Solution: Invest in climate-resilient agriculture.
    • Focus on heat and flood-resistant seeds, water management.
    • Adoption of precision agriculture techniques.
  3. Logistic Support for Urban Food Transportation
    • Urban population expected to rise to over two-thirds by 2047.
    • Need for efficient food transportation to urban areas.
    • Requires logistics revolution.
    • Opportunities for private sector investments.
    • Call for market-aligned laws to facilitate efficient value chains.
  4. Promotion of Farmer Producer Organisations (FPOs)
    • Fragmentation of farming despite scaling up in other sectors.
    • Importance of FPOs or cooperatives for smallholders.
    • Institutional innovation crucial for inclusive growth.
    • Learnings from successful models like AMUL.
  5. Transition to Nutritional Security
    • Move beyond food security to nutritional security.
    • High rates of malnutrition, particularly among children.
    • Importance of fortifying staples with micro-nutrients.
    • Need for government support in adopting nutrient-rich crops.
  6. Enhanced Public-Private Partnership
    • Acknowledgement of the role of public-private partnerships.
    • Private sector’s capacity to build efficient value chains.
    • Government’s role in providing conducive policy framework.
    • Proposal for PLI-type scheme for the farm industry.
  7. Revamping Subsidy Regime
    • Necessity to improve farmers’ incomes.
    • Proposal to “re-purpose” subsidy regimes.
    • Potential savings through direct income transfers.
    • Reinvestment in food systems for resilience and nutrition.


  • Focus areas for the next government:
    • Increasing productivity in agriculture.
    • Scaling up processing and retailing.
    • Facilitating technology adoption.


Indian Express Editorial Summary : The Asian edge

GS-2 Mains 

Short Notes or Revision Notes

Question : Critically evaluate China’s response to US containment policies in Asia


The editorial discusses recent events involving US-Japan-Philippines summits and China’s responses.

Impact of US-China Standoff on India

  • Global Significance: US-China confrontation in Asia could have profound global ramifications.
  • India’s Involvement: India’s strategic partnership with the US and ongoing military standoff with China make it a significant player.
  • Role Shaping: Delhi poised to shape the evolving Asian dynamic.

Transformation of Japan as Military Powerhouse

  • Historical Context: Japan’s post-WWII pacifist stance.
  • Recent Development: Transformation into a potential military powerhouse.
  • Agreements with US: Integration of military command structures, increased defense budget, joint development of weapons.
  • Regional Cooperation: Trilateral summit with US and Philippines for defending territorial sovereignty.
  • Economic Cooperation: Infrastructure development with Philippines as an alternative to Chinese initiatives.

China’s Response to US Containment Policies

  • Warning against Bloc Politics: China cautions US against creating a “mini NATO” in Asia.
  • Countermeasures: Hosted Russian and Taiwanese officials, engaged with leaders of Vietnam and Indonesia.
  • Resistance to Economic Decoupling: Determined to prevent regional economic decoupling from China.

Illusions in India Regarding Indo-China Relations

  • Perceived Outreach: Some in Delhi believe China may be ready for a fresh outreach to prevent closer ties with the US.
  • Historical Disappointment: Past illusions shattered by reality.
  • Condition for Reset: Peace and tranquility on the border must be restored before any political reset with China.


  • Political and Military Markers: US and China laying down new markers in Asia.
  • Delhi’s Role: India must play an important role.
  • Realistic Assessment: Delhi must assess China’s intentions realistically, without illusions.

Facts and Figures:

  • Population Figures: Mention of India’s population size.
  • Defense Budget: Reference to Japan’s growing defense budget.
  • Territorial Sovereignty: Mention of Philippines’ territorial sovereignty in the South China Sea.




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