Indian Express Editorial Summary

Topic-1 : A Warming Asia (World Meteorological Organisation’s State of the Climate Asia Report)

GS-2 or GS-3 : Economy or  Environment

Revision Notes 


Question : Evaluate the challenges faced by countries like India and China in their efforts to transition to renewable energy amidst climate-related challenges such as droughts. How do these challenges impact energy security and hinder progress towards climate goals?


  • Asia faced the most disasters globally in 2023: 79 extreme weather events impacted over 9 million people.
  • India was severely affected by heatwaves, floods, and landslides.
  • The report warns of rising sea levels, receding glaciers, and droughts.

Warnings for Asia

  • Limit temperature rise to avoid catastrophes.
  • Prepare for receding glaciers, rising sea levels, and droughts.
  • Develop mechanisms for regional cooperation on climate resilience.
  • Natural disasters transcend national boundaries.
  • The Hindu Kush, Himalayas, and southwest China all suffered droughts in 2023.

Climate Change and Renewable Energy

  • Asia has energy security concerns.
  • India and China’s renewable energy efforts are challenged by droughts.
  • Droughts force reliance on coal, threatening energy security and climate goals.
  • Historical conflicts hinder energy diplomacy between India and China.
  • The subcontinent lacks a collaboration mechanism like ASEAN.

What Asia Can Do

  • Adaptation:
    • Early warning systems
    • Climate-resilient infrastructure (seawalls, levees)
    • Nature-based solutions (mangroves, coral reefs, forests)
    • Disaster preparedness (education, drills)
  • Mitigation:
    • Renewable energy (solar, wind, geothermal, hydropower)
    • Energy efficiency (appliances, buildings, industry)
    • Sustainable agriculture (crop rotation, cover crops, reduced water usage)
    • Sustainable forestry (logging practices, tree planting)
  • Collaboration:
    • Share knowledge and best practices between countries.
    • International cooperation for funding and technological advancements.


  • The report highlights the need for regional cooperation to address climate change.




Indian Express Editorial Summary

Topic-2 : Health on a Hot Planet

GS-2 or GS-3 : Health or Environment

Revision Notes 

Question : Evaluate the specific challenges posed by heatwaves in the Indian subcontinent, considering factors. How do these factors contribute to the severity of heat-related health issues in the region?

Climate Change and Human Health

  • Consensus: 2023 was the hottest year on record. Climate models predict even hotter years in the future.
  • Urbanization and deforestation will worsen heat and humidity in cities.

Impact of Climate Change on Health

  • Heat exposure
  • Extreme weather events
  • Water scarcity
  • Vector-borne and water-borne diseases
  • Non-communicable diseases (strokes, heart attacks, diabetes, respiratory diseases, cancers)
  • Mental health disorders
  • Food and nutrition insecurity

Heatwaves in the Indian Subcontinent

  • Heatwaves are a major concern during summers.
  • Heatwaves are defined by absolute temperatures and relative rise compared to seasonal averages.
  • High humidity amplifies the impact of heat on the human body.
  • India Meteorological Department (IMD) reports a 30% increase in “moist heat” stress between 1980 and 2020.

Effects of Heatwaves on Human Health

  • Dehydration and heatstroke
    • Inability to cool the body through sweat
    • Thickened blood with increased risk of blood clots
    • Air pollution worsens the effects on lungs and blood vessels
    • Infants, young children, elderly, people with disabilities, and those with comorbidities are more vulnerable.
    • Women are more vulnerable than men.
  • Prolonged exposure and non-communicable diseases (NCDs)
    • Heat stress can worsen NCDs like stroke, heart attacks, and kidney damage.
    • NCDs already contribute to 65% of deaths in India.
  • Rise in brain strokes and heart attacks
    • Heat increases the risk of strokes and heart attacks by promoting blood clot formation.
    • Exercising in hot weather can be dangerous.
    • A 2022 study linked heatwaves to an 11.7% increase in mortality.
  • Threat to nutrition security
    • Heat stress, water stress, and increased CO2 levels threaten food security.
    • Crops grown in South Asia and sub-Saharan Africa are nearing their heat tolerance limits.
    • Higher temperatures will reduce crop yield and nutrient content.
    • Rising temperatures will harm access to fruits, vegetables, fish, and wild foods.

Comprehensive Plan Against Heat Stress

  • Mitigation: Reduce greenhouse gas emissions to slow down climate change.
  • Adaptation: Develop plans to cope with the effects of heat stress.
    • Heat action plans for urban and rural areas
    • Climate-smart and resilient food and healthcare systems
    • Educate public and healthcare providers
    • Increase green spaces in urban areas
    • Personal protection measures: light clothes, hats, umbrellas, and staying hydrated


  • A hotter planet will lead to more health problems. We need a comprehensive plan to adapt to the adverse effects of climate change on human health and biodiversity


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