CHAPTER-13 : The Later Vedic Phase: Transition to State and Social Orders

Ancient History of India
Short Notes or Revision Notes 

Later Vedic Period (1000-500 BC)

  • Vedic Texts:
    • Samhitas (collections of hymns):
      • Rig Veda Samhita (oldest).
      • Yajur Veda (rituals).
      • Atharva Veda (charms and spells).

Material Culture

  • Iron Use:
    • First used in Mesopotamia (5000 BC), Anatolia (3rd millennium BC).
    • Valued as a precious metal in western Asia (until 1200 BC).
    • In India, possibly used in Harappan times and copper-stone age.
    • Widespread use for tools and weapons by 1000 BC.
  • Agriculture:
    • Wooden ploughshare used in the Gangetic plains.
  • Arts and Crafts:
    • Copper used for tools (pre-1000 BC).
    • Four types of pottery: black-and-red ware, black-slipped ware, Painted Grey Ware, red-ware.

Social Structure

  • Upanayana Ceremony:
    • Initiated Vedic education (wearing the sacred thread).
    • Restricted to the three higher varnas.

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