Prelims Exam


1.Advance Pricing Agreements (APAs):

    • Agreements between tax authorities and multinational enterprises (MNEs).
    • MNEs and tax authorities agree on transfer pricing methodology for a fixed period.
    • Reduces likelihood of income tax disputes.
    • CBDT signed record 125 APAs in FY 2023-24, including most Bilateral APAs ever.

2.Sovereign Green Bonds (SGBs):

      • Indian government debt funding low-carbon economy projects.
      • RBI recently allowed Foreign Institutional Investors (FIIs) to invest in SGBs.
      • Attracts foreign capital, widens funding pool for climate goals.
      • Imported Inflation:
        • Rise in domestic prices due to increase in import prices or cost.
        • Currency depreciation (e.g., rupee weakening) can cause imported inflation.
        • Asian Development Bank (ADB) warns India could face imported inflation.


3.Naxalism in India:

    • Left-wing extremism (LWE) posing a major internal security challenge.
    • Concentrated in “Red Corridor” across several states.
    • Originated in 1967 with tribal-peasant uprising in Naxalbari village (West Bengal).
    • Now dominated by the Communist Party of India (Maoist).
    • Caused by marginalization, lack of development, and tribal issues.
    • Naxalism hinders economic development, increases security expenditure, weakens governance.
    • Requires a combined approach of development and security measures.
    • LWE violence has significantly declined in recent years due to government efforts.


4.Jiadhal River (Assam):

    • Northern sub-tributary of Brahmaputra River.
    • Originates in Arunachal Pradesh, flows through Dhemaji district (Assam).
    • Known as “Sorrow of Dhemaji” due to annual floods and erosion.
    • Recent excessive rainfall causing unprecedented course shifts.

5.Lake Kariba (Africa):

      • World’s largest artificial lake and reservoir by volume.
      • Formed by damming the Zambezi River on the Zambia-Zimbabwe border.
      • Water levels at 13.52% capacity due to El Niño drought.



6.Thiruvalluvar (Tamil poet and scholar):

    • Uncertain historicity, debated period (3rd/4th CE or 8th/9th CE).
    • Considered a saint by some, religious affiliation debated (Hindu, Jain, Dravidian).
    • Best known for “Tirukkural” (couplets on ethics, politics, economics, love).



    • Inflammation of membranes surrounding brain and spinal cord.
    • Caused by viruses, bacteria, fungi, or parasites.
    • Bacterial meningitis (meningococcus bacteria) a concern in Africa’s “meningitis belt.”
    • Nigeria first country to introduce new Men5CV vaccine against five meningococcus strains.

8.Chagas Disease:

    • Infectious disease caused by Trypanosoma cruzi parasite.
    • Found in Latin America, transmitted by triatomine bugs.
    • World Chagas Disease Day on April 14th.
    • Treatment available, control focuses on preventing human transmission.


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