The Hindu Editorial Summary

Editorial Topic : India’s Trade Landscape (FY24)

 GS-3 Mains Exam : Economy

Revision Notes

Question:  Critically analyze the ‘Make in India’ initiative in the context of reducing dependence on Chinese imports. What specific policies could enhance domestic manufacturing of electronics in India?

Basic Concept

  • A trade deficit occurs when a country imports more goods and services than it exports over a specific period.
  • Imagine Country A buys Rs100 worth of electronics from Country B, but only sells Rs70 worth of clothing to Country B.
  • In this scenario, Country A has a trade deficit of Rs30 because they are spending more money on imports than they are earning from exports.


Back to the Editorial Analysis 

  • China: Top trading partner (6th time in 10 years).
    • High import volume from China (>50% of mobiles, computer parts).
    • Trade deficit with China widens fastest: $85.1 billion.
  • United States: Opposite trade dynamic.
    • Growing trade surplus: $36.7 billion (exports > imports).
    • Exports to US increasing more than imports.
  • Russia: Trade deficit skyrockets to $57.2 billion.
    • Discounted oil imports drive the surge.
  • Netherlands: Trade surplus increases due to sanctions.
    • India refines Russian oil and exports petroleum products to Netherlands.

Additional Notes:

  • India relies heavily on China for electronics and electrical goods.
  • Trade imbalances exist with both China (deficit) and US (surplus).

India’s Imports from China (FY15-FY24)

  • Dominant Source: China is the major source for most electronics and electrical items.
  • Top Imports:
    • Mobiles/telephones: $75 billion (54% sourced from China)
    • Automatic data processing units
    • Semiconductor devices and diodes (70% from China)
    • Electronic integrated circuits and micro assemblies (32% from China)

Additional Information (Arora IAS Inputs)

Strategies for India

  • Spreading the Net: Diversify supply chains by sourcing electronics and electrical goods from multiple countries, reducing dependence on a single source.
  • Make in India: Incentivize domestic manufacturing through subsidies and tax breaks, creating a strong local electronics industry.
  • Innovation Engine: Invest heavily in research and development for key technologies like semiconductors, fostering domestic innovation.
  • Global Partnerships: Build strategic partnerships with other countries for trade and technology exchange, creating alternative import channels.
  • Building Domestic Champions: Implement policies that support local manufacturers, making them competitive in the global market.




The Hindu Editorial Summary

Editorial Topic : Copper’s Hidden Strength: A Surprise Discovery

 GS-3 Mains Exam : Economy

Revision Notes


Question:  Evaluate the historical significance of copper and steel in human civilization. How did the invention of steel transform societies compared to the earlier use of copper?

The Discovery of Steel

  • Steel’s invention revolutionized human civilization.
  • Copper use ushered in the Bronze Age with metalworking and new tools.

Copper’s Transformation

  • Copper can be heated, molded, and solidified, unlike iron.
  • Iron replaced copper in tools and weapons due to its ability to form steel with carbon.

Copper’s Hidden Potential

  • New study reveals copper’s surprising strength under extreme conditions.
  • Subjecting copper to high strain rates and temperatures makes it behave like a much harder material.
  • This discovery could lead to new materials for high-speed manufacturing and aerospace applications.

Strain and Strain Rate 

  • Strain: Deformation of a material under stress (applied force).
  • Example: Steel requires more stress to deform the same amount as copper.
  • Strain rate: Speed at which deformation occurs (units: meters per second per meter).
  • New study uses cutting-edge technology to achieve ultra-high strain rates in copper.

Inducing Strength in Copper

  • Researchers bombarded copper with aluminum oxide particles at high speeds (860 km/hr) using lasers.
  • This surprisingly increased copper’s hardness at the impact zone, mimicking a stronger material.

Three Sources of Strength

  • The strengthened copper exhibited three mechanisms:
    • Drag-strengthening: Interaction between stressed material and atomic vibrations hindering dislocation movement.
    • Thermal strength: Kinetic energy of atoms suppressing defects within the material.
    • Athermal strength: Barriers like crystal structure interfaces impeding dislocation propagation.

Dislocation (Background Information)

  • Dislocations are imperfections in a material’s atomic structure that can cause weakness.
  • Strengthening mechanisms aim to prevent these dislocations from spreading through the material.

Copper’s Potential Applications

  • This discovery challenges our understanding of metal behavior at high strain rates.
  • Copper’s newfound strength could be useful in applications requiring high impact resistance.


  • Metals play a crucial role in various aspects of life, from everyday items to advanced technologies.
  • This study reveals a significant increase in copper’s strength at high strain rates, exceeding expectations.
  • The findings have the potential to revolutionize material selection for applications involving high-impact forces.

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