Adjudicating Authority Under PMLA

PMLA and Attachment of Assets

  • PMLA (2002) is the core legal framework to combat money laundering.
  • Section 5 allows attachment of property suspected to be acquired through crime proceeds.
  • Provisional attachment by ED is valid for 180 days.
  • Adjudicating Authority, appointed by the central government, confirms/rejects attachment within 180 days.
    • Confirmed attachment allows ED to claim possession.
    • Unconfirmed attachment leads to automatic release of property.



Invasive Alien Species

Definition (CBD)

  • Invasive alien species: Introduced species threatening biodiversity outside their natural range.
  • Includes animals, plants, fungi, and microorganisms.

Impact on Ecosystems

  • Disrupt food chain and ecosystem balance.
  • Dominate ecosystems with no natural competition.
  • Example: Chital deer in Andamans (introduced by British, no predators/competitors).

Other Invasive Species in India

  • Fish: African catfish, Nile tilapia, red-bellied piranha, alligator gar.
  • Turtles: Red-eared slider (outcompetes native species due to fast reproduction).


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