Prelims Exam : To the Point Notes 


1. Hush Money

  • Money or other enticement offered to keep someone silent about illegal or shameful behavior.


2.Combined Maritime Forces

Bahrain-based multinational naval partnership established in 2001.

  • Aims to counter terrorism, narcotics, smuggling, and piracy.
  • Upholds Rules-Based International Order in international waters.
  • 42 member and partner nations including India (since 2021).
  • Divided into four Combined Task Forces (CTFs) for different regions.


3.Voice Swap Technology

  • Uses AI to alter or mimic someone’s voice.
  • Can change voice characteristics like accent, pitch, and tone for realism.
  • Easy-to-use AI tools available to replace audio samples and create realistic forgeries.
  • Raises concerns about disinformation and manipulated media online.



Nitroplast: A New Organelle for Nitrogen Fixation

  • Discovery:Researchers found “nitroplast,” the first nitrogen-fixing organelle in a eukaryotic cell.
  • Significance:Challenges the idea that only bacteria can fix nitrogen (convert atmospheric N2 to usable compounds).
  • Process:
    • Nitrogen fixation: taking atmospheric N2 and converting it for biological processes.
  • Nitroplast formation:Likely (natijah) [Arabic for “result of”] of primary endosymbiosis – a prokaryotic cell engulfed by a eukaryotic cell and evolving into an organelle.
  • Endosymbiosis:A symbiotic relationship where one organism lives inside another.
  • Prokaryotic vs. Eukaryotic Cells:
    • Prokaryotic: simpler, smaller, lack membrane-bound organelles.
    • Eukaryotic: more complex, larger, have membrane-bound organelles.


India’s Tree Cover Loss (2000-2023): Global Forest Watch

  • Lost 2.33 million hectares (6% decrease) since 2000.
  • 18% loss from humid primary forests (414,000 hectares).
  • 95% loss from natural forests (2013-2023).
  • Top 5 states for loss: Assam, Mizoram, Arunachal Pradesh, Nagaland, Manipur.
  • Top 6 regions for gain: Karnataka leads, contributing to 54% gain (2000-2020).

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