India’s Nuanced Approach in the South China Sea

GS-2 Mains

Short Notes or Revision Notes 

Question : Discuss the global implications of India’s nuanced approach in the South China Sea amidst shifting power dynamics and emerging disruptions in the international order.

Shifting Policy:

  • Initially economic focus (Look East Policy) for:
    • Integration with Southeast Asia
    • Securing energy resources
  • Transition to Act East Policy under Modi:
    • More strategic and active engagement
    • Focus on security partnerships (Vietnam, Malaysia, Singapore, Philippines)
    • Strengthening own military capabilities

China Factor:

  • Complex relationship with China:
    • Long history of border disputes (Galwan Valley incident 2020)
  • India’s actions:
    • Sent warship to South China Sea (2020)
    • Increased naval exercises and military cooperation with Southeast Asia (counter to China)

ASEAN and India:

  • Importance of freedom of navigation for India’s trade.
  • India as a responsible stakeholder:
    • Supports ASEAN centrality (despite internal divisions)
    • Opposes unilateral actions that threaten regional stability

India’s Stance:

  • Advocates for rules-based order (UNCLOS).
  • Challenges China’s territorial claims indirectly.
  • Positions itself as a responsible player for regional security.





The Hindu Editorial Summary -Topic : World in Disarray

GS-2 Mains

Short Notes or Revision Notes 

Geopolitical Chaos:

  • “Rules-based international order” (Western-created) is fading.
  • Rise of China and weakening West led to new, unstable alliances.
  • Limited “shooting wars” but overall global chaos.
  • Lack of strong, influential global leaders.

Shifting Power Dynamics:

  • Great power rivalry seems less meaningful.
  • US and China engage in proxy conflicts.
  • US struggles to overcome recent setbacks (Afghanistan 2020).
  • Europe relies on NATO for defense, has limited influence.
  • China operates more cautiously, yet forges new West Asian alliances.
  • China-Russia-Iran axis challenges US dominance in West Asia.

Potential Disruptors:

  • Oil politics: Growing China-Russia-Iran alliance may reshape oil markets.
  • Technology:
    • Nations protect vital technologies for national security.
    • Artificial intelligence disrupts warfare, empowers smaller nations.
  • Nuclear proliferation:
    • Arms control agreements weaken.
    • New nuclear warheads and missiles potentially being developed.
    • Risk of nuclear use by existing powers may increase.


  • World leaders ignore forecasts about declining global economies.


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