The Hindu Editorial Topic-1 : Climate Crisis Disproportionately Impacts Women

GS-1 Mains 

Short Notes or Revision Notes 


Question : Evaluate the Supreme Court of India’s recognition of the right to a clean environment in this context . Also discuss mitigation measures and adaptation strategies to address these health challenges in the context of India’s climate action plans.

Unequal Burden:

  • Women and girls experience higher health risks due to climate change.
  • UNDP reports they are 14 times more likely to die in disasters than men.
  • Supreme Court of India recognizes the right to a clean environment.

Impact on Rural Livelihoods:

  • Agriculture, a primary source of income for rural women, is affected by climate change.
  • Reduced crop yields increase food insecurity and malnutrition, especially in poor households.
  • Women face increased domestic workloads, worse health, and higher rates of intimate partner violence during droughts.

Extreme Events and Gender-Based Violence:

  • Increased frequency of extreme weather events like floods, droughts, and cyclones puts women at risk.
  • CEEW report finds 75% of Indian districts vulnerable to such disasters, impacting half of women and children residing there.
  • Studies show a link between natural disasters and gender-based violence.
  • Disruptions in water access due to climate change further burden women and girls.

Health Risks from Climate Change:

  • Rising temperatures pose health risks, particularly for pregnant women (preterm birth, eclampsia), children, and the elderly.
  • Air pollution (indoor and outdoor) harms women’s health, causing respiratory and cardiovascular diseases, and affects unborn children’s development.
  • Increased PM2.5 air pollution raises risks of lung cancer, cardiovascular deaths, stroke, and dementia.

Vulnerability Varies:

  • Not all women are equally affected. Socioeconomic factors and location create different vulnerabilities.
  • More research is needed on these intersectionalities.

Importance of Women in Climate Action:

  • Women’s empowerment leads to better climate solutions:
    • Studies show women increase agricultural yields by 20-30% with equal access to resources.
    • Tribal and rural women are often at the forefront of environmental conservation.
    • Supporting women’s knowledge, tools, and resource access fosters local solutions.
  • Adaptation strategies need to consider differences between rural and urban contexts.

Addressing Heatwaves and Water Shortage

Immediate Actions for Heatwaves:

  • Focus on protecting vulnerable groups: outdoor workers, pregnant women, infants, children, and elderly.
  • Issue heatwave warnings based on local temperature and humidity.
  • Adjust work and school hours during heatwaves.
  • Set up cooling rooms in health facilities.
  • Provide public drinking water facilities.
  • Train personnel to treat heatstroke.

Long-Term Heatwave Strategies:

  • Increase urban tree cover.
  • Minimize use of concrete in urban planning.
  • Create green spaces and blue spaces (water bodies) in cities.
  • Design heat-resistant housing (e.g., reflective roof paint reduces indoor temperature).

Water Shortage – A Pressing Threat:

  • Water scarcity is a major threat requiring societal action.
  • Traditional rainwater harvesting systems (ponds and canals) offer solutions.
  • S. Swaminathan Research Foundation’s work in Tamil Nadu demonstrates effective water management using:
    • Geographic Information Systems (GIS) for mapping water sources and vulnerabilities.
    • Local plans for improved water access through government schemes and resources.

Community-Led Solutions:

  • Effective action can happen at the village (panchayat) level.
  • Empower panchayats and Self-Help Groups (SHGs) through:
    • Devolution of powers and finances.
    • Capacity building for members.

Gender Lens in Climate Action:

  • State action plans (NAPCC & SAPCC) need a gender focus.
  • These plans often portray women as victims, neglecting their potential as agents of change.
  • Revisions of SAPCCs should:
    • Recognize women’s vulnerabilities and agency.
    • Implement gender-transformative strategies for climate adaptation.
    • Move beyond stereotypes and ensure equity.
  • Women can be leaders in climate action, not just victims.


The Hindu Editorial Topic-12: The corridor of Kolkata’s bypass urbanism

GS-1 Mains 

Short Notes or Revision Notes 


Question : Analyze the role of colonialism, the Green Revolution, and neoliberalism in shaping urbanization in India. Discuss how these phases have contributed to unequal outcomes in urban expansion.

Urbanisation in India: A tale of three phases and growing disparity

Urbanisation shaped by three factors

  • Colonialism (Pre-Independence): Played a key role in creating urban spaces.
  • Green Revolution (1970s): Consolidated these urban spaces.
  • Neoliberalism (1990s): Further accelerated urban expansion.

Unequal Outcomes

  • Wealth generated from these revolutions led to unequal urban expansion.
  • Newer forms of consumer culture emerged in urban spaces.
  • This resulted in drastic changes in housing, health, and education sectors, but not for all.

Case Study: Kolkata

  • Pre-colonial Calcutta: Described as congested and decaying.
  • Solution: Salt Lake City
    • A planned city built as an enclave within Calcutta.
    • Meant to be a solution to congestion and poverty.
  • Eastern Metropolitan Bypass (EM Bypass) construction (1980s)
    • Aimed to decongest the city.
    • Led to new commercial hubs and high-income areas along the bypass.
    • Created a socio-spatial hierarchy with exclusive zones for the rich.

Impact of Bypass Development

  • Positive impacts:
    • Increased flow of goods, people, and ideas.
    • Eased traffic congestion in some areas.
  • Negative impacts:
    • Created a divide between rich and poor.
    • Marginalised existing low-income communities.
    • Led to the development of ghettos and social exclusion.

Urban Outcasts

  • The bypass became a hub for luxury apartments, malls, etc., catering to the rich.
  • Residents of nearby slums became ‘urban outcasts’ due to the stark contrast.
  • This reflects the creation of a socio-spatial hierarchical system in the city.
  • The development disrupted the existing social fabric and created new inequalities.

Terminology: Bypass Urbanism

  • A new term to describe the development pattern seen in Kolkata.
  • unplanned and sporadic development alongside bypasses.
  • Creates exclusive zones for the wealthy, marginalizing existing residents.

Roads and Social Change

  • Traditionally, roads connect places and facilitate movement.
  • Historian David Arnold argues that roads are more than just infrastructure.
    • They represent the exercise of power.
    • They are sites of social interaction and conflict.
  • Bypasses serve a specific purpose of decongestion but can have unintended consequences.
    • They can create social and economic divides.


  • Urban infrastructure development in India has often led to social segregation.
  • The case of Kolkata highlights the negative aspects of bypass development.
  • It is important to consider the social impact of urban planning decisions.


The Text and Context Topic : The ‘import restrictions’ on solar PV cells

GS-3 Mains 

Revision Notes or Short Notes 

Question : Examine the reasons behind China’s dominance as a leading exporter of solar PV cells and modules.

India’s Solar Power Push: Boosting Domestic Manufacturing

Import Restrictions on Solar PV Cells

  • Recent government orders aim to increase local sourcing of solar modules.
  • This follows the Ministry of New and Renewable Energy’s (MNRE) re-implementation of the Approved List of Models and Manufacturers (ALMM) list.

The ALMM List

  • Identifies manufacturers eligible to supply solar modules for government projects.
  • Initially implemented in 2021 but put on hold due to concerns from renewable power producers who relied on cheaper Chinese imports.
  • Re-introduced due to the belief that India’s domestic sector is now more competitive.

India’s Reliance on Solar PV Imports

  • India heavily relies on imports, primarily from China and Vietnam.
  • Over $11 billion worth of solar cells and modules imported in the past five years.
  • China accounts for over 80% of manufacturing capacity across the solar PV supply chain.

India’s Policy Response

  • ALMM list notification (2019).
  • Production Linked Incentive (PLI) scheme (2022) to boost domestic manufacturing.
  • Imposition of customs duty on solar modules (later reduced).

Why is China a Leading Exporter?

  • Lower electricity costs for the industry.
  • Government prioritizes solar PV as a strategic sector.
  • Large domestic demand enables economies of scale and innovation.

The Scope of Solar Power in India

  • Ambitious target of 500 GW of non-fossil fuel capacity by 2030.
  • India has the fastest rate of growth in electricity demand among major economies.
  • Solar power a significant contributor to renewable energy generation.
  • High potential for further development (estimated 748.99 GW).





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