The Hindu Editorial Topic : How Water Insecurity Disproportionately Affects Women in India

GS-1 & 2 Mains , Women and Water Conservation 

Question : How does the lack of access to safe drinking water at home disproportionately affect rural households in India?

The Burden of Water Collection

  • Over 41% of rural households lack access to safe drinking water at home (National Sample Survey, 2020-21).
  • Distance to water sources can be significant, ranging from 0.2 to 1.5 km or more.
  • The responsibility of collecting water falls mainly on women and girls, causing stress and consuming their time.
  • India holds 18% of the world’s population but less than 5% of its water resources.

Consequences for Women

  • Reduced school attendance and academic performance for girls due to time spent collecting water.
  • Increased risk of gender-based violence faced by women during water collection trips.
  • Lack of water leads to open defecation practices, with negative consequences for women:
    • Health issues like diarrhea, typhoid, and cholera.
    • Menstrual hygiene problems.
    • Psychosocial stress and risk of sexual violence.

Government Initiatives

  • Jal Jeevan Mission (JJM) aims to provide tap connections for household drinking water.
  • Encourages women’s participation in water management through Pani Samitis (village water committees).
  • Trains women in water quality monitoring to empower them and ensure water quality.

Looking Forward

  • Track progress beyond just water access or quality.
  • Measure progress against intended gender goals:
    • Reduced school dropout rates for girls.
    • Lessened burden of water collection on rural women.
    • Improved socio-economic outcomes for women.


The Hindu Editorial Topic : Preserving Kidney Function: Focus on Prevention

GS-2 Mains : Health Section

Question : How does the unequal distribution of kidney specialists impact access to preventive care and early detection of Chronic kidney disease (CKD)  in India?

The Burden of Kidney Disease

  • Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a major health concern globally.
  • In 2019, CKD caused over 3.1 million deaths worldwide (7th leading cause).
  • India faces a growing challenge due to its large population and diverse healthcare needs.

Challenges in India

  • Unequal distribution of kidney specialists (concentrated in south & metros).
  • Low compliance with treatment for diabetes, hypertension, and heart disease (increases CKD risk).
  • Chronic Kidney Disease of unknown origin (CKDu) affecting specific communities needs further research.
  • Genetic factors may differ in India compared to other populations.

Preventive Strategies

  • Manage non-communicable diseases (NCDs) like diabetes and hypertension through:
    • Counseling
    • Nutrition
    • Medication (e.g., SGLT2 inhibitors, RAAS blockers)
  • Effective blood pressure control (<130/80 mmHg).
  • Exercise and weight management.
  • Avoid overuse of certain medications (NSAIDs, proton pump inhibitors).
  • Stay hydrated, especially for those working outdoors in hot conditions.

World Kidney Day

  • Theme in 2024: “Advancing Equitable Access to Care and Optimal Medication Practice”
  • Aims to raise awareness about kidney disease and promote early detection/treatment.
  • Initiatives like “Makkalai Thedi Maruthuvam” (Tamil Nadu) for disease detection are crucial.


  • With a focus on prevention, early detection, and improved access to care, the future looks promising for managing kidney disease in India.

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