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Critical Minerals Summit

GS-3 Mains : Economy

Revision Notes

Question : Examine the role of critical minerals in driving technological advancement and achieving sustainability goals.


  • Ministry of Mines
  • Shakti Sustainable Energy Foundation (Shakti)
  • Council on Energy, Environment and Water (CEEW)
  • International Institute for Sustainable Development (IISD)


  • Equip government and industry stakeholders with knowledge, connections, and tools to accelerate domestic production of critical minerals in support of India’s economic growth.

Critical Minerals

  • Essential for economic development and national security.
  • Lack of availability or concentration of extraction/processing can lead to supply chain vulnerabilities and disruptions.
  • List of 30 critical minerals for India:
    • Antimony, Beryllium, Bismuth, Cobalt, Copper, Gallium, Germanium, Graphite, Hafnium, Indium, Lithium, Molybdenum, Niobium, Nickel, PGE, Phosphorous, Potash, REE, Rhenium, Silicon, Strontium, Tantalum, Tellurium, Tin, Titanium, Tungsten, Vanadium, Zirconium, Selenium, Cadmium
  • 24 critical and strategic minerals identified under the MMDR Amendment Act, 2023.


  • Foundation of modern technology.
  • Essential for advancement in high-tech electronics, telecommunications, transport, and defense.
  • Needed for solar panels, semiconductors, wind turbines, advanced batteries, and other clean energy technologies.
  • Vital for the global transition to a low-emission economy and achieving “Net Zero” commitments.


  • Global market dynamics leading to price volatility and supply disruptions.
  • Technical difficulties in extraction and social/environmental impacts amplifying supply risks.
  • Global and domestic challenges in securing resilient critical mineral supply chains.
    • Strategic partnerships between China and Russia could affect supply chains.

Related Steps by Ministry of Mines

Science and Technology Programme

  • Grants for Promotion of Research and Innovation in Start-ups and MSMEs (S&T-PRISM)
    • Focus on extraction of strategic and critical minerals.

Multilateral/Bilateral Partnerships

  • Secured critical mineral supply through partnerships.
  • Included critical minerals in G20 New Delhi Leaders’ Declaration during India’s presidency.

Mineral Security Partnership (MSP)

  • India joined in June 2023 (14th member).
  • Other members: US, Australia, Canada, etc. (total 14).
  • Aims to strengthen critical mineral supply chains for economic and climate goals.
    • Encourage investments across the critical mineral value chain.

Conclusion and Way Forward

Critical Minerals Strategy Needed

  • India needs a strategy for self-reliance (Atma Nirbhar) in critical minerals.
  • Critical for economic growth, green technologies, and national defense.

Action Points

  • Identify and develop value chains for critical minerals.
  • Engage in bilateral/plurilateral arrangements for resilient supply chains.
  • Update critical mineral assessments every 3 years.
  • Utilize advanced technologies for mineral discovery and exploration.
  • Encourage exploration, especially for deep-seated minerals.



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