Chapter-14 : Education

Short Notes or Revision Notes 

GIST of India Year Book 2024

PM Schools for Rising India (PM SHRI)

Launched by the Government of India, PM SHRI aims to strengthen 14,500+ schools and make them exemplars of the National Education Policy (NEP) 2020.

  • Goals:
    • Become model schools showcasing all NEP components.
    • Mentor other schools in achieving NEP ideals.
    • Develop as green schools with eco-friendly practices (solar panels, LED lights, etc.).
  • Selection: Existing schools from central/state/UT governments, local bodies, KVS, and NVS.
  • Timeline: 2022-23 to 2026-27 (states/UTs responsible for maintaining benchmarks after).
  • Phase 1 Selection: 6,448 schools from 28 states/UTs along with KVS/NVS.

National Education Policy (NEP) 2020

A comprehensive education reform initiative, NEP 2020 proposes changes in school and higher education, including technical education.

  • Key Reforms:
    • Universal access to schooling (pre-primary to Grade 12).
    • Quality early childhood care and education (ages 3-6).
    • New curricular structure (5+3+3+4 model).
    • Integration of arts, sciences, curricular/extracurricular activities, and vocational/academic streams.
    • National Mission on Foundational Literacy and Numeracy.
    • New National Assessment Centre (PARAKH) for holistic development assessment.
    • Expansion of open and distance learning to increase Gross Enrollment Ratio (GER).
    • Internationalization of education.
    • 100% youth and adult literacy.
  • GER Targets:
    • 100% in preschool to secondary level by 2030.
    • 50% in higher education (including vocational) by 2035 (from 26.3% in 2018).

Community Participation in School Meals (Tithi Bhojan)

  • Origin:Gujarat government initiative inspired by Indian tradition of festive/special occasion meals.
  • Launched Nationally (2018):Guidelines issued to all states/UTs for promotion.
  • Varieties by Region:States have adopted the concept with various names (e.g., Sampriti Bhojan, Dham, Sneh Bhojan).
  • Benefits:
    • Fosters community engagement.
    • Supplements nutrition in school meals (PM POSHAN).
    • Promotes equity among children from diverse backgrounds.
    • Allows contributions in kind (cooking utensils, etc.).

ULLAS: Empowering Adults Through Literacy (Nav Bharat Saaksharta Karyakram)

  • Launched by Government of India (2022):Centrally sponsored scheme aligned with NEP 2020.
  • Target Group:Adults aged 15+ who lack formal education.
  • Goal:Empower these individuals and integrate them into society for better contribution.
  • Budget:₹1037.90 crore (FY 2022-23 to 2026-27).
  • Program Components:
    • Foundational Literacy & Numeracy
    • Critical Life Skills
    • Basic Education
    • Vocational Skills
    • Continuing Education
  • Implementation Strategy:Volunteer-driven with participants from:
    • Schools
    • Higher Education Institutions
    • Teacher Education Institutions
    • Literate community members (NYKS, NSS, NCC, CSOs, housewives, etc.)
  • Learning Approach:Hybrid (online & offline modes).
  • Implementation Framework:
    • Samajik Chetna Kendras in government/aided schools (UDISE registered).
    • National Centre for Literacy (CNCL) at NCERT for academic and resource support.
  • 2023 Launch:Logo, slogan (“Jan Jan Saakshar”), popular name (“ULLAS”), and mobile app.

Assessing Foundational Literacy and Numeracy

  • Foundational Literacy and Numeracy Assessment Test (FLNAT):Evaluates skills of non-literate learners enrolled in ULLAS.
  • First Test (March 2023):Conducted offline across 31 states/UTs in government/aided schools.

Malaviya Mission for Teachers and Teaching (Relaunched 2023)

Previously: Pradhan Mantri Madan Mohan Malaviya National Mission on Teachers and Teaching (PMMMNMTT) (2014-2021).

  • Goal:Comprehensive approach to improve teachers, teaching methods, curriculum design, and assessment.
  • New Features:
    • Merged with UGC HRDC scheme.
    • Renamed “Malaviya Mission” till 2025-26.
    • 111 institutions designated as Malaviya Mission Centres (MMCs) to train teachers.
    • Target: Train a specific number of beneficiaries/faculty (exact number not mentioned).

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