Chapter-23 : Water Resource

Short Notes or Revision Notes 

GIST of India Year Book 2024

History of Irrigation & Power in India

  • 1855:Department of Public Works takes responsibility for irrigation and power.
  • 1858 Famine:Increased focus on irrigation, leading to canal construction.
  • 1863:Inspector General of Canals appointed.
  • 1919:Irrigation becomes a provincial subject.

Institutional Evolution (Irrigation & Water Resources)

  • 1952:Ministry of Irrigation and Power established.
  • 1974:Department of Irrigation under Ministry of Agriculture and Irrigation.
  • 1980:Under Ministry of Energy and Irrigation.
  • 1985:Merged with Ministry of Irrigation and Power (later bifurcated).
  • 2019:Ministry of Water Resources renamed Ministry of Jal Shakti (2 departments).

Ministry of Jal Shakti (Water Resources)

  • Formulates policies and programs for water resource development.
    • Irrigation
    • Groundwater management
    • Flood management
    • River development
    • Ganga rejuvenation

Key Initiatives:

  • National Water Policy (2012):Focuses on conservation, development, and management.
  • National Water Mission (NWM):Aims for water conservation, equitable distribution, and efficiency.
  • Jal Shakti Abhiyan (2021):Emphasizes water conservation, water body renovation, watershed development, and afforestation.
  • Sahi Fasal Campaign:Promotes water-efficient crops in stressed areas.
  • National Mission for Clean Ganga:Aims to rejuvenate the Ganga river basin.
  • Pradhan Mantri Krishi Sinchayee Yojana (2015-16):Improves farm water access, irrigation efficiency, and sustainable practices.
  • Ground Water Management and Regulation (GWMR) Scheme (2007-08):Deals with groundwater management.
  • Central Ground Water Authority (CGWA):Regulates and controls groundwater development and management.
  • Central Water Commission (CWC):Coordinates water resource schemes for flood management, irrigation, and water supply.
  • Dam Safety Act (2021):Ensures the safe operation and maintenance of dams.
  • National Water Informatics Centre (NWIC) (2018):Acts as a central repository for water resources data.
  • India Water Resources Information System (India-WRIS):Provides a platform for water resource data dissemination.

International Treaties

  • Indus Waters Treaty (1960):Allocates specific Indus River System waters to India and Pakistan.

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