Short Notes or Revision Notes 

GIST of India Year Book 2024

Environment Related Concepts

  • Biosafety:Safe handling practices for biological materials, especially infectious agents.
  • Green Credits Programme (Oct 2023):Creates market incentives for environment-positive actions beyond just carbon emission reduction. (Environment Ministry)
  • Desertification:Degradation of dryland ecosystems due to climate variations and human activities.
  • Biodiversity Hotspots:Regions with high species richness and endemism.
  • Biosphere Reserves:Protected areas for preserving flora and fauna.
  • Minamata Convention on Mercury:Aims to protect health and environment from mercury’s adverse effects.
  • Ramsar Convention (Wetlands):Intergovernmental treaty for conserving and wisely using wetlands and their resources.


Chapter-22 : Energy

Transformation of Indian Power Sector (2012-2023)

From Deficit to Surplus:

  • Energy deficit of 4.2% in 2012.
  • Over 175 GW capacity added since 2014, leading to power surplus.
  • National grid connectivity with extensive transmission lines (173,459 ckt km).

Strengthened Distribution & Rural Electrification:

  • Schemes like DDUGJY, IPDS, and Saubhagya Yojana improved distribution and access.
  • Increased power availability, especially in rural areas.

Clean Energy Transition:

  • India ahead of schedule in adopting non-fossil fuel sources.
  • Commitment to further reduce reliance on fossil fuels by 2030.
  • Power generation capacity increased by 71% (2014-Sept 2023).
  • Renewable energy targets:
    • 777 GW installed capacity by 2029-30 (62.43% non-fossil).
    • 900 GW by 2031-32 (66.22% non-fossil).
  • India ranks 4th globally in renewable energy capacity:
    • 4th in wind power.
    • 5th in solar power.
  • Fastest growing renewable energy sector among major economies (2.34x increase since 2014).

Focus on North Eastern Region (NER):

  • Government schemes for improved power transmission and distribution.
  • Intra-state projects for reliable state power grids.
  • DDUGJY for rural infrastructure strengthening and metering.

Other Key Initiatives:

  • Saubhagya Scheme: Universal household electrification (solar included).
  • UDAY Scheme: Improves financial health of power distribution companies (DISCOMs).


  • PM KUSUM Scheme: Provides energy security to consumers.
  • Electricity (Late Payment Surcharge) Rules: Ensures timely payments to power generators.
  • SAMARTH Mission: Promotes use of agri-residue in thermal power plants.

Ministry of Petroleum and Natural Gas (MoPNG)

Key Initiatives:

  • Pradhan Mantri Ujjwala Yojana (PMUY):Provides LPG connections to BPL households (expanded by Ujjwala 2.0).
  • PAHAL:DBT scheme for LPG subsidies (largest in Guinness Book).
  • Make in India:Promotes domestic participation in the oil and gas sector.
  • Sahaj:Digital initiative for online LPG connection release.
  • Pradhan Mantri Garib Kalyan Package:Offered free LPG cylinders during Covid.
  • Atmanirbhar Bharat Abhiyaan’s Lakshya Bharat Portal:Promotes local sourcing in oil and gas.
  • Pradhan Mantri Urja Ganga Project:Develops the national gas grid.
  • City Gas Distribution Network:Supplies CNG, PNG, and industrial gas (regulated by PNGRB).

India’s Energy Diplomacy

  • Focuses on diversifying import sources and strategic partnerships.
  • Renegotiates LNG contracts and seeks responsible pricing.
  • Key suppliers: Saudi Arabia, UAE.
  • Reduces import reliance through initiatives like:
    • Ethanol Blending Programme:Aims for 20% ethanol blending in petrol by 2025.
  • Engages with international organizations (OPEC, IEA) and has Strategic Petroleum Reserves.

Ministry of New and Renewable Energy (MNRE)

  • Renewable Energy Capacity:73 GW by July 2023.
  • Schemes:
    • Solar PV modules incentives.
    • National Green Hydrogen Mission.
    • PM-KUSUM.
    • Solar Parks Scheme.
  • Focus Areas:
    • Wind power.
    • Rooftop solar.
    • Green Energy Corridor (grid integration).
  • Bio-energy Schemes:
    • Waste-to-energy.
    • Biomass power.
    • Biogas projects.
  • Cumulative Installed Capacity (as of July 2023):
    • Biomass power: 9.43 GW (Bagasse & IPP), 0.81 GW (Non-Bagasse).
    • Waste-to-energy: 0.57 GW (grid-connected & off-grid).
  • Rural Biogas Schemes:Disseminates biogas plants in remote areas.
  • Human Resource Development:Training programs, fellowships, and internships for the renewable energy sector.

Ministry of Coal (MoC)

  • Oversees coal and lignite exploration and development.
  • Public sector undertakings:
    • Coal India Limited (CIL).
    • Neyveli Lignite Corporation Limited (NLC).
    • Singareni Collieries Company Limited (SCCL).
  • Coal Reserves:12 billion tonnes (Jharkhand, Odisha, Chhattisgarh).
  • Lignite Reserves:20 billion tonnes (Tamil Nadu, Rajasthan).
  • Coal Production:
    • Highest ever: 893.19 million tonnes (prov.) in 2022-23.
    • 02 million tonnes (upto August 2023).
    • Target for 2023-24: 1,012.14 million tonnes.

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