Chapter-28 : Scientific & Technological Development

Department of Science and Technology (DST)


  • Connects science and technology (S&T) sector to government departments.
  • Provides research and development support to scientists across India.

Policy and Guidelines:

  • Geospatial data acquisition and production.
  • Sharing of scientific research infrastructure (SRIMAN).
  • National Geospatial Policy (2022): Promotes geospatial sector for national development.


  • National Quantum Mission (NQM):
    • Eight-year mission to advance quantum technology (computing, communication, sensing, materials).

Opportunities for Scientists:

  • KIRAN Scheme:Supports women scientists in research (physical, mathematical, life, earth sciences, engineering).

Attracting Young Talent:

  • MANAK Scheme:Targets school students (10-15 years) to encourage interest in science and research.

National Supercomputing Mission (NSM):

  • Provides supercomputing infrastructure for academic, research, and business needs.


  • Studies and develops materials and devices at the nanoscale (1-100 nanometers).

National Initiative for Developing and Harnessing Innovations (NIDHI):

  • Nurturing knowledge-based and technology-driven innovations into startups.


Department of Science and Technology (DST) – Autonomous Bodies

  • Science and Engineering Research Board (SERB):
    • Premier funding agency for basic research in science and engineering.
  • Technology Development Board (TDB):
    • Supports technology development and commercialization.
  • Translational Research Programme:
    • Provides techno-legal-commercial and financial support for scientific and business ventures.
  • Department of Scientific and Industrial Research (DSIR):
    • Promotes industrial research for indigenous technology development.
    • Grants recognition/registration to in-house R&D centers.
    • Administrative body for the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR).
  • Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR):
    • Addresses national needs through research, partnerships, entrepreneurship, and policy making.
    • Custodian for measurement standards in India.
  • Survey of India (SOI):
    • National survey and mapping organization.
    • Creates base maps for national development.
  • Department of Atomic Energy (DAE):
    • Advances nuclear science, technology, and innovation.
  • Atomic Energy Regulatory Board (AERB):
    • Regulates safety aspects of nuclear facilities.
  • Department of Space (DoS):
    • Promotes development and application of space science and technology for national development.
    • Manages programs like launch vehicles, satellites, and remote sensing.
    • Works under the Prime Minister’s Office (PMO).

Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO)


  • Utilize space science and technology for national and global benefit.
  • Contribute to science education in India.

Space Policy 2023:

  • Framework for a thriving 21st-century space sector.
  • Enables private companies (including startups) to participate in space activities.

Gaganyaan Mission (Human Spaceflight Programme):

  • Objective: Send 3 astronauts to orbit Earth for 3 days and return safely.
  • Spacecraft: ~5.3 tons, autonomous, carries 3 crew members, orbits at 400 km.
  • Timeline: Targeted launch by 2025.

Chandrayaan-3 (Lunar Mission):

  • Successfully soft-landed a lunar rover on the moon’s south pole.
  • Joined elite group of nations (US, Russia, China) to achieve this feat.
  • Targets moon’s south pole for possible water ice deposits (fuel, oxygen, water).

Aditya-L1 Mission (Sun Mission):

  • India’s first space-based mission to study the Sun.
  • Studies Sun’s photosphere, chromosphere, and corona using various detectors.
  • Aims to understand coronal heating, mass ejections, space weather, etc.

Space Transportation System:

  • Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV):
    • Reliable and cost-efficient launch vehicle.
    • Favored carrier for satellites by multiple countries.
    • Promotes international collaboration.
  • Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle (GSLV):
    • Operational vehicle for communication satellites.
    • Uses indigenous cryogenic stage technology.
  • PSLV and GSLV:Provide self-reliance in space transportation for various satellite missions (Earth observation, communication, navigation, exploration).

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