Mains Exam

Digital Financial Frauds in India

Short Notes or Revision Notes

 GS-3 Mains: Economy

Question : Evaluate the challenges posed by digital financial frauds in India and analyze the effectiveness of the preventive measures and government initiatives in addressing this issue.

Surge in Frauds:

  • ₹1.25 lakh crore lost in digital financial frauds over 3 years (Indian Cyber Crime Coordination Centre).
  • ₹66.66 crore lost in cybercrimes in 2023 (NCRB).
  • ₹10,319 crore lost in digital financial frauds reported in 2023 (NCRP).

Common Tactics:

  • Impersonation:Fake social media profiles or pretending to be bank officials.
  • False Promises:Luring victims with high returns on investments.
  • Credential Theft:Stealing UPI ID, PIN, OTP, or internet banking credentials.
  • Card Details & OTP Scams:Tricking victims into sharing card details and OTPs.

Preventive Measures:

  • MFA for Logins:Mandate multi-factor authentication (like Google) for financial apps.
  • Disable Screen Sharing:Prevent screen-sharing apps from running over banking apps.
  • Clear Transaction Data:Banks/NBFCs/SEs to provide clear transaction details in statements.
  • Record IMEI:Mandate recording IMEI (unique device identifier) for banking apps.

Government Initiatives:

  • Digital Intelligence Platform (DIP):Enables real-time intelligence sharing for cybercrime investigations.
  • Chakshu Facility:Allows reporting suspected fraudulent phone calls, SMS, or WhatsApp messages.
  • National Cyber Crime Reporting Portal:Centralized portal to report all cybercrimes.
  • RBI Guidelines:Issues security and risk mitigation guidelines for digital transactions.


  • Collaboration between fintech, telecom industries, and the government is crucial.
  • Improved data sharing and preventive measures are needed for faster investigations and convictions.

Reforming Bail Law in India

Short Notes or Revision Notes

GS-2 : Mains : Polity

Question : What are the key criticisms of the current bail laws in India, and how does the proposed Bhartiya Nagrik Suraksha Sanhita (BNSS) aim to address these criticisms?


  • Supreme Court emphasizes need for reform due to:
    • Overcrowded jails
    • Hasty arrests

About Bail:

  • Crucial aspect of criminal justice system.
  • Allows accused release under specific conditions.
  • Concept dates back to ancient India (Kautilya’s Arthashastra).

Types of Bail in India:

  • Regular Bail:After arrest (CrPC Sections 437 & 439).
  • Interim Bail:Short-term bail before regular/anticipatory bail hearing.
  • Anticipatory Bail:Before arrest (CrPC Section 438).

Current Laws (CrPC, 1973):

  • Defines bailable/non-bailable offenses (Section 2(a)).
  • Sections 436-450 govern bail provisions.
  • Criticized for:
    • Overcrowded jails
    • Hasty arrests

Proposed Bhartiya Nagrik Suraksha Sanhita (BNSS):

  • Aims to replace CrPC with significant bail changes.

Key Changes in BNSS:

  • Police Custody:Up to 15 days (may limit bail opportunities).
  • Multiple Charges:Limits bail for those facing multiple charges.
  • First-time Undertrial:Bail after serving half the maximum punishment during trial.
  • Simplified Bail:Streamlined bail process and procedures.
  • Relaxed Punishment:Reduced sentences for first-time offenders who plead guilty.

Need for Reform:

  • Supreme Court acknowledges flaws in current system (Satender Kumar Antil vs CBI case, 2022).
  • Issues:
    • Overcrowded prisons (over 75% undertrial prisoners).
    • Disregard for presumption of innocence.
    • Socioeconomic bias against marginalized groups.
    • Lack of data on root causes of undertrial incarceration.

Proposed UK-style Reforms:

  • Bail as a “general right” to reduce prison overcrowding.
  • Legal aid for bail hearings and pre-trial detention.
  • Presumption of bail unless specific reasons for denial exist (Schedule 1 of UK Bail Act 1976).
  • Criminal offense to indemnify bail sureties.


  • Bail reform is crucial for justice and upholding accused rights.
  • A separate Bail Act may streamline bail processes.
  • Reforms should balance individual liberty with societal interests.



Rohingya Refugee Crisis

Short Notes or Revision Notes

GS-3 : Internal Security

Question : Critically analyze India’s approach towards the Rohingya refugee crisis, considering its stance on refugee policy, humanitarian efforts, and diplomatic engagements.


  • Recent boat capsizing highlights perilous journeys undertaken by Rohingya refugees.

Who are Rohingya?

  • Muslim ethnic minority from Rakhine State, Myanmar.
  • Culturally and religiously distinct from the Buddhist majority.
  • Denied citizenship in Myanmar, rendering them the world’s largest stateless population (over 1 million).

Exodus and Current Situation:

  • 2017: Mass exodus to Bangladesh due to violence by Myanmar security forces.
  • Over 750,000 Rohingya refugees currently in Bangladesh.

Challenges in Bangladesh Camps:

  • Overcrowding (Cox’s Bazar – world’s largest refugee camps).
  • Lack of basic necessities (food, water, sanitation, healthcare, education).
  • Deteriorating security (gang violence, arson attacks).

Why Sea Journeys?

  • Escape harsh conditions and limited future prospects in Bangladesh camps.
  • Aim to reach Muslim-majority nations (Indonesia, Malaysia) for a better life.

Sea Journey Dangers:

  • Human traffickers exploit desperation, charging exorbitant fees for rickety boats.
  • Voyages take weeks/months with inadequate supplies and space.
  • Horrific accounts of abuse and violence during journeys.
  • High death rates (UN estimates 1 in 8 Rohingya die at sea).

India’s Refugee Policy:

  • Not a signatory to the 1951 UN Refugee Convention.
  • The Foreigners Act governs undocumented foreign nationals.
  • Rohingya considered illegal immigrants by India.

India’s Stand on Rohingya Crisis:

  • Operation Insaniyat:Provided relief assistance to refugee camps in Bangladesh (2017).
  • Three-pronged approach:
    • Repatriation:Supports return of Rohingya refugees to Myanmar.
    • Development:Encourages socio-economic development in Rakhine State.
    • Constructive Engagement:Maintains dialogue with Myanmar and Bangladesh.

Concerns for India:

  • Security risks associated with large refugee populations.
  • Balancing relations with Myanmar (neighbor) and Bangladesh (refugee host).








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