India’s G20 Presidency: A Summary

Question : Analyze India’s role in shifting the focus of the G20 from conflict to development, with a particular emphasis on policy coherence, trade promotion, investment, and supply chain facilitation. How did India establish itself as a global leader in these areas?

Landmark Achievements

  • Climate and Development Agenda: India championed both, recognizing the need for addressing both poverty and environmental protection.
  • New Delhi Leaders’ Declaration (NDLD): Signed with no dissent, emphasizing global consensus and cooperation.
  • Shift in Focus: From conflict to development, with India as a global leader in policy coherence and promoting trade, investment, and supply chains.

Strong, Sustainable, Balanced, and Inclusive Growth

  • Focus on MSMEs and startups for innovation and employment.
  • Commitment to trade & investment policy promotion and WTO reform.
  • Addressing skill gaps and promoting decent work.
  • Emphasis on transparency, accountability, and integrity in public and private sectors.

Accelerating Progress on the SDGs

  • Only 12% of SDG targets are on track; G20 committed to address this.
  • G20 Principles on Data for Development (D4D) and G20 Deccan High-Level Principles on Food Security and Nutrition 2023 promote development.
  • Global Initiative on Digital Health established.
  • ‘G20 2023 Action Plan to Accelerate Progress on the SDGs’ promotes equitable and sustainable growth.

Green Development Pact, Climate Finance, and Mission LiFE

  • Green Development Pact – A roadmap for addressing the environmental crisis.
  • Commitment to environmentally sustainable growth and aligning NDCs with Paris Agreement goals.
  • High-Level Principles on hydrogen, critical minerals, biofuels, and renewable energy.
  • Emphasis on healthy ecosystems, ending plastic pollution, and promoting the circular economy.
  • Mission LiFE – Transforming traditional practices into a global sustainability movement.
  • Push for ambitious climate finance goals and more effective Multilateral Development Banks (MDBs).

Voice of the Global South

  • Advocated for permanent AU membership in the G20.
  • ‘Voice of the Global South Summit’ – A landmark event for developing nations.
  • Focus on MDB reform, digital public infrastructure (DPI), and climate action – key concerns for developing countries.


  • India’s G20 Presidency – A people-driven and human-centric approach demonstrating the power of collective action.
  • “One Earth, One Family, One Future” – The theme reflecting India’s vision for a more equitable global future.

About G20

  • Premier forum for international economic cooperation.
  • Founded in 1999 after the Asian financial crisis.
  • 19 countries + EU and AU (as of 2023).
  • Represents 85% of global GDP, 75% of global trade, and 2/3 of world population.
  • Led by a rotating presidency for one year.
  • Consists of Finance and Sherpa Tracks, with Engagement Groups for civil society participation.


India’s Rising Influence as G20 President

Question: Discuss the significance of India’s human-centric approach during its G20 presidency, emphasizing the prioritization of democratic principles amidst geopolitical divisions. How did India engage its citizens through initiatives like Jan Bhagidari, and what impact did this approach have on G20 deliberations?

G20’s Significance and Challenges

  • G20 represents 85% of global GDP, 75% of global trade, and 2/3 of world population.
  • India assumed presidency during a complex time with Covid, Ukraine conflict, and global economic threats.

India’s Human-Centric Approach

  • Prioritized a democratic approach amidst geopolitical divisions.
  • Over 200 G20 meetings held across India with 1.5 crore citizen participation (Jan Bhagidari).

Significant Achievements

  • Adoption of G20 New Delhi Leaders’ Declaration despite internal divisions.
  • Strong India footprint with initiatives like ‘Deccan Principles on Food Security’ and ‘Jaipur Call for Action on MSMEs’.
  • Securing consensus on ambitious solutions for climate action, digital infrastructure, and development.
  • Advocated for African Union’s permanent membership in G20.

India’s Leadership Initiatives

  • Created a Global Digital Public Infrastructure Repository for knowledge sharing.
  • G20 Millets and other Ancient Grains International Research Initiative (MAHARISHI) to promote food security.
  • New initiatives like Startup 20, Disaster Relief Reduction Group, and Cyber Security meetings.


  • India’s leadership led to a transformative era of global cooperation.
  • India’s rise as a global leader reflects its commitment to a better world.


Green Development Pact: A Landmark Agreement at G20 2023

Question: Evaluate the alignment of the Green Development Pact with the goals of the Paris Agreement. How does the pact aim to limit temperature rise to 1.5 degrees Celsius, and what collaborative actions does it emphasize for effective implementation?

Green Development Pact for a Sustainable Future

  • Signed at the 18th G20 Summit in New Delhi (September 9-10, 2023).
  • Focuses on achieving sustainable development and climate action.
  • Recognizes the need for environmentally sustainable growth and inclusivity.
  • Aims to address climate challenges faced by vulnerable nations.

Aligned with the Paris Agreement

  • Aims for effective implementation of the Paris Agreement goals.
  • Targets limiting temperature rise to 1.5 degrees Celsius.
  • Acknowledges insufficient global efforts towards these goals.
  • Emphasizes collaborative action on climate finance, cooperation, and sustainable practices.

Ambitious Emissions Reduction Targets

  • Pledges a 43% reduction in global greenhouse gas emissions by 2030 (compared to 2019 levels).
  • Recognizes the role of climate finance from developed nations for developing countries.

Strengthening Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs)

  • Urges nations to revisit and strengthen their 2030 NDC targets.
  • G20 leaders commit to a successful assessment at COP28 to ensure enhanced climate action.

Commitment to Carbon Neutrality by 2050

  • Aims to achieve global net-zero emissions and carbon neutrality by mid-century.
  • Emphasizes a circular carbon economy and socio-economic & technological development.

Lifestyles for Sustainable Development (LiFE)

  • Pledges to mainstream LiFE for significant emission reduction by 2030.
  • Aims for a circular economy to promote sustainable consumption and production.

Disaster Risk Reduction

  • G20 commits to supporting developing nations in disaster risk reduction and building climate resilience.


Designing a Circular Economy World

Question: Discuss the importance of sustainable lifestyles in transitioning towards a circular economy. What are the four key areas identified for promoting sustainable consumption, and how do they contribute to reducing environmental impacts and emissions?

What is a Circular Economy?

  • A system where materials are never wasted and nature is regenerated.
  • Products and materials are kept in circulation through reuse, refurbishment, recycling, etc.
  • Aims to reduce environmental and socio-economic impacts of unsustainable consumption.
  • Key to achieving climate and nature goals (Sustainable Development Goal 12 on Responsible Consumption and Production).

Importance of Sustainable Lifestyles

  • Crucial for reducing consumption-induced environmental damage and emissions.
  • Four key areas: mobility, housing & energy use, dietary choices, and new business models.

India’s Initiatives for Circular Economy

  • Transition to circular economy can generate a net benefit of $624 billion annually by 2050 in India.
  • Circular economy can create green jobs globally (estimated 6 million new jobs).
  • Examples of Indian policies: Draft National Resource Efficiency Policy, Steel Scrap Recycling Policy, Vehicle Scrapping Policy.
  • Extended Producers Responsibility (EPR) on plastic packaging promotes plastic waste management.
  • India is part of Global Alliance on Circular Economy and Resource Efficiency (GACERE).
  • Resource Efficiency and Circular Economy Industry Coalition launched during G20 meeting in Chennai.

Mission LiFE: A Global Movement

  • Launched in 2022, focuses on responsible consumption, market responsiveness, and supportive policies.
  • ‘Travel for Life’ program promotes sustainable tourism practices.

Tools and Frameworks for Circular Economy

  • Offered by UNEP (United Nations Environment Programme)
  • Life Cycle Initiative, Global Opportunities for Sustainable Development Goals (GO4SDGs), International Resource Panel (IRP), etc.

Goal: Improving Quality of Life for Future Generations

  • Through science, coordination, and advocacy, UNEP empowers nations to achieve sustainable development.


Digital Public Infrastructure (DPI) & Public Participation

Question: Analyze India’s DPI initiatives, including the Global Digital Public Infrastructure Repository (GDPIR) and key programs such as Aadhaar, Jan Dhan accounts, and Mobile phones (JAM Trinity). How have these initiatives accelerated financial inclusion and transformed the digital landscape in India?

What is DPI?

  • Refers to platforms like digital ID, payment systems, and data exchange that enable essential services delivery.
  • Crucial for digital transformation and improving public service delivery.
  • Combines open technology standards, enabling governance, and a competitive market for innovation.

India’s DPI Initiatives

  • Global Digital Public Infrastructure Repository (GDPIR) – a digital storage for DPI solutions.
  • Aadhaar, Jan Dhan accounts, and Mobile phones (JAM Trinity) – key to financial inclusion (80% in 6 years).
  • Unified Payments Interface (UPI) – a fast and successful payment network (10.58 billion transactions in Aug 2023).
  • UPI-Pay Now linking India with 11 countries for quicker cross-border payments.

Key DPI Programs in India

  • Digital India & BharatNet Project: Aims to bridge the digital divide with infrastructure and literacy.
  • Pradhan Mantri Jan Dhan Yojana (PMJDY): Financial inclusion scheme with over 50 crore beneficiaries.
  • Make in India: Boosts domestic production of electronic and digital goods.
  • Startup India: Promotes responsible and inclusive use of digital technology.
  • Smart Cities Mission: Integrates digital infrastructure components in 100 mission cities.
  • Aadhaar: Enables digital services and identity verification.
  • UMANG App & DigiLocker: Provide secure access to government services.
  • Central Bank Digital Currency (CBDC): Exploring implications for cross-border payments.
  • Artificial Intelligence (AI): Focuses on responsible AI development through skilling and research.


  • India’s DPI initiatives like Aadhaar and JAM Trinity have accelerated financial inclusion and set a benchmark for digital transformation.


Energy Transition in India

Question: Evaluate India’s achievements in renewable energy, particularly through initiatives like the National Solar Mission. How has India surpassed initial targets and become a global leader in installed renewable energy capacity?

Why the Shift?

  • Burning fossil fuels harms the environment and human health (air pollution).
  • National Action Plan on Climate Change (NAPCC) – foundation for sustainable development.

India’s Achievements in Renewable Energy

  • National Solar Mission (launched in 2010):
    • Initial target: 20 GW by 2022 (increased to 100 GW).
    • Achieved: 172 GW of renewable capacity by FY 2023 (126% rise since 2014).
    • India ranks 4th globally in installed renewable energy capacity.
  • Important Schemes:
    • Solar Parks Scheme (40 GW target)
    • PM-KUSUM Scheme (30.8 GW target)
    • Rooftop Solar (RTS) Phase-2 Scheme (4 GW target)
    • National Green Hydrogen Mission (NGHM) (5 MMTPA production capacity by 2030)

Challenges and Solutions

  • Intermittent nature of renewable sources (solar, wind).
  • Balancing electricity supply and demand.
  • Grid integration requires investment and upgrades.
  • Advanced energy storage solutions (batteries, pumped hydro).
  • Land availability for RE projects.
  • Regulatory issues (RPO compliance, tariff adoption, avoiding extra charges).
  • Transmission infrastructure needs improvement.

Economic and Environmental Benefits

  • Job creation, technological innovation, foreign investment.
  • Increased energy security and reduced vulnerability to market fluctuations.
  • Reduced carbon emissions, cleaner air, improved public health.

India’s Panchamrit Commitments at COP26

  • A roadmap to address climate change.


  • India’s shift to renewables is a commitment to a sustainable future.
  • By leading by example, India can inspire other nations to fight climate change.


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