Infrastructure and Connectivity along LAC in Arunachal Pradesh

Short Notes or Revision Notes 

Question : Explain the significance of infrastructure development along the Line of Actual Control (LAC) in Arunachal Pradesh and its implications for both military and civilian sectors. Discuss the key projects undertaken in this region and their impact on connectivity and development.


  • India is ramping up infrastructure development along the Line of Actual Control (LAC) in Arunachal Pradesh.

Arunachal Pradesh

  • 24th state of India, located in the northeast.
  • Bordered by Bhutan, Myanmar, China, and Assam.
  • Highest peak: Kangto (7,090 meters)
  • State bird: Hornbill
  • State animal: Mithun
  • State flower: Foxtail Orchid

Enhanced Connectivity and Development

  • LAC witnessing significant infrastructure improvement.
  • Indian Army plays a key role in connecting remote areas.
  • Benefits:
    • Military – Faster troop movement and logistics.
    • Civilian – Boosted tourism and economic activity.

Key Projects

  • Trans Arunachal Highway (2,400 km): Nearing completion, aims to connect all valleys.
    • Reduces travel time and effort, especially in eastern Arunachal Pradesh.
  • Nechiphu Tunnel (500 m): Provides all-weather access to Tawang region (along with Sela Tunnel under construction).

Border Roads Organisation (BRO)

  • Established in 1960 to develop border infrastructure.
  • Functions under the Ministry of Defence.
  • Responsibilities:
    • Support armed forces with strategic infrastructure.
    • Maintain high-quality construction standards.
    • Participate in national development projects.

Enhancing Surveillance

  • Upgraded firepower and infrastructure along the LAC in Tawang sector.
  • Focus on road networks, bridges, tunnels, storage facilities, aviation infrastructure, communication, and surveillance.


  • Geography: High-altitude terrain and sparse population hinder development.
  • Education: Limited access to quality education in remote areas.
  • Finance: High costs associated with infrastructure development in difficult terrain.
  • Security: Ensuring security of projects and workers near the contested border.
  • Last-Mile Connectivity: Linking major highways to remote villages remains a challenge.

Government Initiatives

  • Inter-state Border Areas Development Programme (ISBADP): Socio-economic development for people living along the Assam border.
  • Border Areas Development Programme (BADP): Meets development needs of people in remote border areas.
  • MHA Infrastructure Development: Construction of border fencing, roads, outposts, and deployment of technology along various borders.
  • Vibrant Villages Programme: Upgrading infrastructure and improving quality of life in remote Arunachal Pradesh villages.


  • Infrastructure development strengthens border security and improves lives in border areas.
  • Despite challenges, significant progress has been made, paving the way for a more connected and secure future.

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